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The launch of Disney+ heralds a Tipping Point for the Entertainment Industry

The launch of Disney+ in November 2019 heralds a new era, not only for Disney, but for the entire entertainment industry. It accelerates the inevitable shifts in the industry that has resulted from the digitalisation of content delivery.

With the launch of its streaming service, Disney is now in the game to be a direct-to-consumer brand, with immediate access to data and customer relationships.

In recent years, Disney has dominated the industry in terms of market share, box office blockbusters, revenues and profits. Disney represents the best in breed of the traditional entertainment economy, where studios relentlessly monetised top-of-the-range franchises through content licensing, (theatrical or non-theatrical) distribution and merchandising.

Yet, even Disney faces declining year-on-year revenue, driven by macro trends of consumer-led cord cutting and declining audiences of cable TV globally. In the last quarter, group profits of $785m were down 66 per cent from a year ago. 

Disney could have rested on its laurels but to its credit, it has shown foresight. Unlike industry leaders of past who were relegated to irrelevance when they failed to reinvent themselves in the face of change, e.g. IBM in computer hardware and Kodak in consumer photography, Disney realises that it has to go through an extremely painful and costly transition, in the short term, to avoid an even costlier fate in the long term.

Disney+ is their strategic play in the long game, taking on the likes of Netflix and Amazon on their home ground. While Disney+ is seen as one of the most credible challengers to Netflix, it definitely has its work cut out.

Challenges Disney+ Will Face

By pitting itself against Netflix’s head start of 158 million subscribers, Disney will require a massive investment, specifically in a type of marketing that it has no history of executing (Digital customer acquisition & retention).

Additionally, Disney is also foregoing about 4.5 billion dollars of PROFIT a year from licensing its content to other platforms. This is a huge ticket bet that its investors have to have the patience for, (or not).

It’s true that Disney and Fox collectively have one of the most bankable back catalogues in the industry. But whether back catalogue is a powerful enough driver to acquire new subscribers  remains to be seen. In fact, Disney now has to go toe-to-toe against Netflix’s $15 billion a year rate of investment in new content acquisition. 

In a consumer-driven market that favours VOD, Netflix dominates the market share of SVOD revenue with a subscriber base of 150 million. Despite an impressive subscriber base, Netflix has yet to turn a profit. Whilst Disney forecasts its streaming service to be profitable in 2024 with a subscriber base of 90 million. Only time will tell how this forecast will play out.

In coming months, competition for subscribers will get even stiffer with other well-backed entrants launching their streaming services, such as AT&T’s Warner/HBO Max and NBCU’s Peacock. 

With non-traditional, digitally-savvy players like Apple TV+ entering the fray, (given away to boost hardware sales) & we’ll have to wait to see what Google or Facebook will do in the next 18 months.

The Obvious Winners & Losers

It’s too early to tell who will get ahead in the streaming wars but some things are certain. Audiences are the obvious winners, benefiting from a plethora of content choices at lower prices. Filmmakers, Producers and Studios that create compelling original content will also stand to gain from the surge in demand for content. Undoubtedly, the decline of linear businesses will accelerate as major players pour investment into VOD propositions & pull their content from older linear providers.

As Charles Dawin’s quote goes “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change.” let’s see how this plays out in the entertainment jungle.


About Vuulr

Vuulr is the global online content marketplace for Film & TV rights that connects buyers with distributors worldwide. With Vuulr, content discovery and acquisition takes place 24/7 with buyers negotiating directly with distributors, and completing deals online in days, not months.

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Platform Update: Performance Bidding

Since our last update, we have been listening to our users as to how we can improve the Vuulr platform… and so the next big thing for Vuulr is an enhancement that solves for an underlying trend in the industry that is, inevitably, growing.

With the proliferation of VOD services in recent years — and not all with the huge buying power of Netflix! — Buyers are now looking to ‘buy smarter’ when it comes to licensing content rights. One way they are able to do this — where traditional linear networks are less able — is to use their performance data to measure the success of the content they have acquired.

And not only after the fact; Buyers are now using performance metrics as the basis of their bids when sourcing rights for their channels. So, to solve for this trend, Vuulr has developed a big change to its functionality for Buyers: Performance Bidding.

What’s Performance Bidding?!

What exactly does it look like? Well, here are the models which VOD Buyers can now use to make an offer:

As you can see, depending on the nature of the VOD platform, we’ve enabled 3 new bidding modes that can be tied to the performance of an individual title.

We still enable a Buyer to bid on a ’traditional’ flat fee (only) basis, and even the Performance-based options enable a Buyer to bid with a Minimum Guarantee (MG) + a performance component.

To further help transparency, during the bidding process on Vuulr, Buyers can also provide a forecast of each of the variables, e.g. an estimate of total viewers over a given time period, so that the Seller can evaluate the potential resulting fee… or estimate a bonus upside.

Still not sure how it works? Here’s a 1 minute video that shows a sample Performance Bid:

Benefits for Buyers

This new style of bidding creates the following benefits for VOD Buyers:

  • Acquire more content with less upfront cost, and therefore manage cashflow more efficiently
  • Explore niche content that audiences might not find elsewhere, with less risk
  • Diversify a catalogue with new genres and categories of content

Does this mean it’s all bad news for Sellers?!

No! This new pricing models will unlock more customers for Sellers (i.e. the new breed of VOD buyers) who will now be able to buy more content and explore new genres of content to diversify their catalogue. In other words, this bidding style gives Sellers an additional way to monetise their content. It will, however, require some adaptation to this new normal.

And of course, we would recommend that Sellers insist on regular reporting from the Buyers — in their agreements with Buyers — when accepting Performance-based bids.


That’s all for now. We’ve also pushed many more small improvements this week which you’ll no doubt find while browsing. If you feel that we can improve any area of the platform or service, please drop us a line to info@vuulr.com and we’ll look into your ideas.

Thanks for reading this and as ever we will keep you posted on significant updates to the business.

Best wishes/Team Vuulr


> To register — and start to buy or sell for free — browse to vuulr.com, submit your details (*including a corporate email if at all possible) then we’ll manually approve your account.

Business Update: June 2019

It has been a while since we posted an update, we’ve had our head down working building out the platform and the Vuulr Marketplace business.

So here’s how we are doing…

Core KPIs are Tracking Well

The good news is that the core KPIs for the business are tracking well as you can see from the graphs below.

Listings Catalogue

We have been doing well in terms of the breadth, depth and quality of content we have listed on the Marketplace. We now carry thousands of titles — covering 55 languages and 56 Genres — giving our buyers a huge choice. This make us an attractive destination for Buyers of content (for a TV station or OTT platform) looking for content that their audiences will love.

In many cases we are the only platform to be listing content, and for some (e.g. ABS-CBN) we have on-boarded the partner’s entire catalogue.

We now also have listings with household names and Oscar winning cast members e.g. Liam Neeson, Brad Pitt, Mark Wahlberg, Ashton Kutcher and many more. I’m happy to say that the arrival of these premium titles is ahead of expectations.

Blockchain Development Progress

We have built a successful proof-of-concept prototype of the CISP (Content Industry Supply Chain) protocol on the back of winning the Singapore government’s (IMDA) National Blockchain Challenge; we have been taking this out to the industry and we’ve received a very positive reception.

Brand/Marketing Updates

Thanks for reading this and as ever we will keep you posted on significant updates to the business.

Best wishes / Ben Flint, COO

The New Industry dynamic is Fragmentation, NOT Concentration

Key Fact: The Top 10 Shows in the US account for just 9.4% of viewing — this shows that in the content business the 80:20 rule is increasingly no longer applicable.

Contrary to popular opinion — the new architecture of the industry is driving fragmentation and not concentration. See the data below.

NB this is US oriented data, it would be safe to assume that globally the same change is happening but from an even lower base of concentration (the US consumer is typically used to consuming mainly US content, but outside the US the audience is more used to diversity of content. In Singapore for example there are major content blocks in English, Chinese, Bahasa, and “Indian” (Tamil/Hindi) with significant demand for Anime in Japanese and Korean Drama.

Data Source: Inscape which is a subsidiary of smart-TV maker Vizio, does an annual survey of viewing across 9m US households, making sure to cover all the major demos & geographic areas.

The findings for 2018 offer more evidence of the fragmenting state of TV, with the top 10 shows accounting for just 9.4% of total viewing.

NFL football topped the live-viewing chart, which was dominated by sports. Today, Good Morning America and Friends were the only non-sports programs in the live Top 10. ESPN’s SportsCenter was the №3 show.

Now in its third season, Live PD has become a mainstay for A&E, who will make a 150 more episodes.

Below the top spot occupied by Live PD, one notable change in 2018 compared with 2017 is the fading of The Walking Dead. The zombie series topped last year’s OTT and VOD rankings and was runner-up in the DVR standings. This year, the AMC franchise was №5 on OTT, №4 on DVR and №3 on VOD.

Looking at the Top 10 VOD titles (1) A+E — (2) ABC — (3) AMC — (4) NBC — (5) MTV — (6) MTV — (7) NBC — (8) Fox — (9) Bravo — (10) Bravo

Notice the following key observations:

  • None of the top 10 by viewing come from the Hollywood Big 6 Studios
  • There is a shift, both in the audience behaviour & correspondingly in talent (writers/directors etc), from the “Film” format to the “Multi-Episode Serial” which gives much more time and so canvass for character development and storytelling, to be binge consumed.
  • As audiences become empowered to select what they watch (VOD/OTT vs linear stream), the natural diversity in taste results in fragmentation of consumption.
  • The financial muscle that drove earlier concentration due to capability to distribute, and to get content programmed on a linear stream is being overturned by the newly available data on audience consumption.
  • The result is more opportunity for makers of great content, and Marketplaces like Vuulr give buyers more opportunity to find great content even when it does not come from mainstream sources, through traditional distribution.
  • The end result is that audiences benefit by getting to watch better content with more diversity.

Netflix Originals vs Hollywood Vs Independents

Whilst Netflix likes to keep our eyes focused on their Originals … the reality is that 92% of their library is sourced externally — and the majority of that from independents.

Remember this is an analysis done by an American organisation — and so on Netflix US. It would be fair to say Netflix’s International catalogues, which need to have a higher proportion of local and regionally produced content, will correspondingly have an even LOWER % of US sourced content.

Compounding this, some of Netflix’s current suppliers (eg Disney, Fox, Warner etc) will be taking their catalogues away from Netflix — in effort to launch/bolster their own streaming app and vertically integrate. The obvious implication of this, is that there is a great opportunity for independents to be successful in selling their content to Netflix to fill the gap left by the “Big Name” US Studios. This may end up being a huge strategic error for the Big Name US Studios as it leave the door or opportunity open for a new generation of content creators to monetise on Netflix and grow to be big enough to compete.

The holy grail both sides are chasing is vertical integration, from commissioning through to exhibiting to an audience. Netflix started first, acquired an audience first and is now “learning the ropes” of becoming a studio. Whilst the others, having started as Studios, have to learn how to & then execute, the acquisition of an audience.

This begs a set of questions:

Question 1 — Is vertical integration a successful strategy?

Question 2 — Will Netflix become successful as a studio?

Question 3 — Will Disney/Fox/Warner etc become successful at building an audience?

Whilst this is new ground, there are parallels we can draw from other industries to predict.

Question 1 — Is vertical integration a successful strategy?

Answer: I doubt it. Whilst commissioning/producing a few titles around which marketing can be built (as per at the moment) is a successful and brilliant strategy, it is hard to see how In-house developed content will become the majority share of what is on Netflix.

  • Looking at the cost x risk equation; it is a much better business strategy to pick up titles that are showing early signs of success (and push their success with the “Netflix engine”), than to commission off-paper. Witness the high number of cancelations within the Netflix originals catalogue — few make it past Season 3. (as is the norm for the industry)
  • It is hard to be a B2B business (the studio side) AND a B2C (Netflix the OTT) at the same time — differing cultures and agenda will lead to internal conflict.
  • No other industry has done this successfully (otherwise we would have P&G Shops vs supermarkets, or be listening to music from Universal music streaming app vs Spotify, or booking rooms on a hotel website vs an aggregator like Expedia. The driver for this is consumer behaviour, we the consumer, like to have easy, cheap choice — and that, is the antithesis of what a vertically integrated business wants to provide.

Question 2 — Will Netflix become successful as a studio?

Answer: My bet is yes. They are already hiring the best talent away from the traditional Studios and giving that talent a bigger canvas to draw on. Will Netflix created content ever become the majority of titles (vs the 8% it is today), no, for the reasons highlighted above.

Question 3 — Will Disney/Fox/Warner etc become successful at building an audience

Answer: My bet is no. This is a HARD thing to do. And especially hard thing to do coming from where these guys are at the moment

  • They are playing catch up — they have to persuade people to either switch or take additional subscriptions. Order of magnitude harder (and expensive) to do.
  • Wrong culture. These guys are the 600lb gorilla’s of their B2B sector. And that brings a level of arrogance which is normal for the position. But this will be their downfall when they enter the battlefield and have to win subscriptions 1 by 1 from people they have no power over (consumers).
  • The vertical integrations vs aggregation battle will work against them. As a consumer, I want diversity and choice presented to me in one convenient place & from one subscription. I DON’T want a Netflix Subscription AND a Disney subscription AND a Warner Subscription AND an Amazon subscription AND etc etc.

Barry Diller, the former CEO of Paramount and Fox, talks about the diminished power of movie studios and why “Netflix has won this game” on the latest ReCode interview and offers the cutting sound bite:

…………… “Hollywood is now irrelevant” …………..

Change Coming in Industry Norms for Content Acquisition

When we embarked on our journey at VUULR we heard time and time again about “Industry Norms” that would never change. Understanding that the industry is almost 100 years old, and given that for all that time the way that Content Rights are bought and sold has hardly changed, this mantra came as no surprise.

Changing Norm 1: Output Deals

“But the majors (big content creators and big buyers of content) put in place output deals, where the slate of the next (3/5/10) titles are pre-committed. Buyers will not want to buy “a la cart” on a marketplace. “

Well, when a deal takes a huge amount of time (6 months plus) and manual effort then of course the trend is to “buy in bulk, even if that means buying sight unseen”.

But as the friction of doing a deal is removed, then the economic rational (acquisition efficiency) is also removed, and all that is left is risk i.e. buying content sight unseen. Also, as the cost of content goes up, then so does too the risk of buying content “sight unseen”. Even big name, hit producing star teams have their flops.

So, our view, and also from the lens of a behavioural economist, is that “Output-Deals” are now subject to huge economic forces to drive change; and will begin to disappear in the digital transformation of the industry.

In her LA Screenings Recap on World Screen, highly respected industry watcher Elizabeth Guilder (20 Years @ Hollywood Reporter, 6 years @ Variety and now contributing editor @ “World Screen”) notes that these changes that are already starting to appear in acquisition teams …

“They no longer want to buy in bulk from their U.S. suppliers; rather, like the handful of top British buyers have always done, they increasingly cherry-pick the one, or two, or three shows…”

Changing Norm 2: Flat Licence Fees vs Performance Based Pricing

Historically, the near bottomless pit of ad dollars from brands eager to use TV to reach huge mass audiences, has meant that TV operators have been happy to pay fixed, flat rate licence fees for content. This has been enabled by the sense of security from unwieldy, coarse grained audience statistics that “hid” poor performing content. But things are changing with license fee structures too.

Lead by the OTTs who have the benefit of “per user per second” granularity data on watching habits there has been a small but growing momentum towards (licence) pricing models for finished content, that shares the risk between the “exhibitor” (ie the broadcaster/PayTV/OTT) and the content owner.

Whilst this is shocking for the industry, it is hardly shocking if you look outside the industry. Performance based remuneration has become the norm for many other industries that have digitally transformed and, have as a result, access to the data that enables it.

The PayTV sector of the industry is in an interesting phase at the moment; from having been the high growth, highly profitable “new kid on the block” to which many industry stalwarts flocked, it has now become the industry segment most under pressure from change. Despite being staffed by these stalwarts who cut their teeth on the flat licence fee model, they too, are now looking to change due to that economic pressure they face.

“Rising Fees, Falling Audiences Highlight Pay TV Dilemma” is the headline. With the dramatic visualisation below … (these are US skewed examples, but the trend is global)

The article by Information highlights the key takeaway:

“ Cable channels such as ESPN, TNT and USA have sharply raised the price they charge pay TV operators even as their audiences have shrunk. That is widening a gap between audience and cost and is driving AT&T’s push for paying channels based on the size of their audience.”

Remember that AT&T own/have stakes in DirectTV & WarnerMedia & Turner & Sky (LatAm) & Comcast & HBO & more. So they have a powerful voice and, although this is a fundamental change to industry practise, with support from heavyweights like AT&T, the rate of change is likely to accelerate.

In conclusion we see these changes as positive and inevitable disruption to the industry that will yield benefits to the industry as a whole.

In open, digital, transparent markets, great content gets found and bought, wherever it comes from and from whomever. Small companies are enabled to compete with large on the basis of the quality of content they make. Broadcasters benefit, as less of their budget gets spent on the cost of the transaction.

And finally and most importantly, we the audience win as we get more and better content to watch on “what-used-to-be-called-TV”.

April 2019 Platform Update

Credit: Pixabay

Happy Spring!

This is a short one — we pushed a feature update to the Marketplace yesterday that not only brings some important usability improvements to our users, but also increases our data collection capabilities that will enable us to implement more marketing-automation programs in the future.

Some key updates that made the push:

In-Offer Messaging

By far the largest and most important offer-workflow improvement is the ability for Buyers and Sellers to communicate in real-time, on-platform, to discuss specifics of the deal without having to take the conversation off-platform, or create needless amounts of counter-offers.

This will drive faster negotiation of deal terms, further enabling us to realize our goal of bringing discovery-to-deal to just a matter of days (and not months!).

Custom Language Groups

Today, our buyers and sellers can create custom regions to allow them to quickly add a group of countries to Listing Avails or Offers. (The common use case here is a Buying team who often buys for a set of countries, having to type in the same set of countries for each and every offer can be tedious).

We’re in the process of bringing this functionality to Languages as well. Yesterday’s push brought this to Sellers, enabling them to add a common set of languages to their Listing’s Audio, Subs and Dubs.

In a future release, Buyers will be able to enjoy this functionality when making offers. We have some other new functionality planned for the Offers module that we need to complete first — stay tuned.

Event Tracking

Credit: Pixabay

Data is the “new oil”, many have said. To facilitate us in being smarter and providing better services and experiences to our users, we’ve enabled key event tracking in the Marketplace.

In the short term, this enables us to commence and drive marketing automation programs. In the long term, this data will provide the footing for our planned recommendation engines and other “smart” technologies.

Some exciting stuff is coming…


And, of course, in addition to the above, we’ve also made several behind-the-scenes improvements, and we’ll continue to do so.

Please let us know what you think, and if you have any functionality suggestions — send us a note at info@vuulr.com or find us on social at one of the following links:

Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin


Chris Drumgoole is the Chief Technology Officer of Vuulr. Connect with Chris on his LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/in/chrisdrum/ and on Twitter athttps://twitter.com/cdrum.

February 2019 Platform Update

Credit: Pixabay

Happy March everyone. This year flying by, and it’s already been a month since our last platform update.

First, some updates to the numbers we shared last month:

  • We have over 1,640 unique Listings on the Marketplace, accounting for just over 10,000 hours of content!
  • We’ve had 27 offers already, some of which are looking promising to close soon.

We’re excited to see our usage numbers continue to grow and we remain 100% focused on bringing continuous updates to the platform to make our user’s experience even better.


Recent Platform Enhancements

The month of February saw 2 production pushes which packed in several enhancements that will benefit our platform users.

Saved Searches

Selecting from Saved Searches

This is a frequently requested feature. The majority of our Buyers are focused on specific geographies or genres of Content. Previously, each time the Buyer would log into Vuulr, they’d need to select the same filters to narrow down their content searches. For specific, detailed requests, this could become tedious.

Now, with Saved Searches, a Buyer can save her search criteria and, at a click of a button, select it each time the Buyer logs into the platform.

What’s more, these saved searches are shared with everyone from the same organization so teams can use the same search criteria for quick content discovery! Plus, users can store as many saved searches as they need.

You can read more about this feature over at our ever-expanding support portal.

My Selections

Another frequently requested feature is the ability to save Listings in a kind of “wishlist” or “playlist”.

We’ve built it to be modeled after YouTube’s playlist functionality. All one needs to do is find Listings they want, add to one of their Selections, and can then access those Selections at a later time. The Buyer or Seller can even share these Selections with their colleagues, or even other Vuulr users! (Useful for Sellers wishing to curate selections of their Catalogs)

Take a look at how it looks over at our Support Portal.

Reminder Emails

Lastly, reminders! Vuulr will now periodically send reminders to users where an action may be needed, such as an Offer (or Counter-Offer) is pending, or an enquiry has been submitted. We know you’re all busy and we hope these reminders will be a useful addition to the functionality set.

Users can turn these reminders off by going to the Notification center.

Notification Center Settings

In addition to the above, we’ve also made several behind-the-scenes improvements, and we’ll continue to do so.

Please let us know what you think, and if you have any functionality suggestions — send us a note at info@vuulr.com or find us on social at one of the following links:

Twitter | Facebook | Linkedin


Chris Drumgoole is the Chief Technology Officer of Vuulr. Connect with Chris on his LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/in/chrisdrum/ and on Twitter athttps://twitter.com/cdrum.

Industry Veteran Steve Marcopoto joins Rob Gilby on the VUULR Industry Advisory Board.

I am happy to announce that the former Executive Vice-President & President of Turner Broadcasting in Asia-Pacific, Steve Marcopoto — with over three decades of experience in the content industry — has joined Vuulr as a member of its Industry Advisory Board.

Steve Marcopoto

Among other things, Marcopoto will help Vuulr’s management team refine its product and its go-to-market strategy and he said,

“When I left the corporate world, I wanted to remain involved in new areas of the media industry with people I like and that have incredible vision.Ian, Ben and the Vuulr team have that vision and an ability to execute that I think will truly transform this side of the content industry. It’s exciting to be working with them.”

Steve joins Rob Gilby, the former Managing Director for Disney Southeast Asia, who adds another two decades of experience. Gilby is an investor in Vuulr as well as an advisor.

Rob Gilby

Gilby said, “I’ve been with the team for over a year now and I’m even more excited about the Vuulr proposition.

It is more and more clear that the industries ‘readiness to change plus the pace of technology adoption is accelerating; and Vuulr’s solution solves a genuine and valuable commercial problem, They’re hitting the market at exactly the right time.”

Vuulr’s CEO, Ian Mckee said, “I am humbled that two industry leaders such as Rob and Steve have chosen to join Vuulr on our journey and to contribute their incredible knowledge and insights to help shape our plans.” He continued, “They’re joining us just as the Vuulr marketplace is seeing great traction, and their involvement adds yet more weight to the huge interest we’re seeing from all sides of the industry.”

Ian McKee

Vuulr’s CEO, Ian Mckee said, “I am humbled that two industry leaders such as Rob and Steve have chosen to join Vuulr on our journey and to contribute their incredible knowledge and insights to help shape our plans.” He continued, “They’re joining us just as the Vuulr marketplace is seeing great traction, and their involvement adds yet more weight to the huge interest we’re seeing from all sides of the industry.”

Vuulr is the fastest growing Content Rights Marketplace in the industry — supported by industry-accepted specifications from their partnerships with EIDR, MovieLabs and EMA* in Hollywood — and is the only platform to use the Blockchain as part of its solution.

Based in Singapore, the platform went live in October 2018 and already features content from 65 countries and in 49 languages. Among other milestones, Vuulr has won funding in the form of grants from the Singapore government, via the Infocomm Media Development Authority’s (IMDA) national Blockchain Challenge and their accelerator facility, Pixel Studios.

Vuulr is a Blockchain-enabled, online Global Content Marketplace for the Film, TV and Sports industry. We provide large-scale efficiencies for the global Distribution and Acquisition of content allowing buyers and sellers, to go from discovery to deal in days instead of months. The Vuulr solution aims to save the industry 75% of the value lost to the cost of transactions today, releasing more profit for both buyers and sellers.

The following non-profit associations are core parts of the MDDF, the Movielabs Digital Data Framework, designed as a universal enablement layer for the digital trade of content rights globally:

EIDR: the Entertainment ID Registrar provides a universal unique identifier system for movie and television assets. From top level titles, edits, and DVDs, to encodings, clips and mash-ups, EIDR provides global unique identifiers for the entire range of audiovisual object types that are relevant to entertainment commerce.

EMA: Digital supply chain initiatives have a single purpose — to reduce friction points in the online video supply chain so that the supply chain is more efficient, more timely, more reliable, and less costly. Content availability metadata, commonly called “avails,” are the communications from content providers to retailers about when content titles (for instance, a feature motion picture or television episode) will be available, in which territories, and providing additional data crucial for digital supply chain workflows.

Movielabs and the MDDF: the MovieLabs Digital Distribution Framework (MDDF) comprise a family of complementary, compatible specifications that address key aspects of online delivery; facilitating automation, providing cost savings, and enabling superior consumer experiences. These specifications are created and maintained through industry collaboration, and are open to all industry participants. Parties can adopt these individually or together, with the most benefit coming from greater adoption. Movielabs is part of the MPAA, the Motion Picture Association of America.